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HVE White Papers

                        Available from www.cea-az.com 


Name GATB (Graphical Articulated Total Body)

GATB is a detailed computer model of the human body, representing the human body with 15-segments and 14-joints. The GATB model has 48 degrees-of-freedom for each human. Each of the 15 mass segments can move and interact with the environment.

GATB Head-on Collision, Restrained Occupant Simulation Using GATB, a human model can be placed inside a car during a crash to predict how the human would move, what they would hit inside the car, or how an ejection could occur.. GATB can also be used to simulate a human body being struck by a vehicle's exterior to study pedestrian impacts. Adults and children can be modeled using actual heights and weights so that specific crashes can be studied to determine how injuries occurred. Test dummies can also be modeled using GATB. Car manufacturers can use GATB to study a crash test on the computer prior to crashing real vehicles. This allows researchers to explore proposed test configurations to ensure the test is performed properly.

GATB helps determine the speeds and forces that people experience during a collision. Safety researchers can use this information to study how injuries occur, and design safer vehicles and roads.

GATB is an HVE-compatible version of the widely used ATB computer program first developed by Calspan and enhanced by the US Air Force. The GATB program is further described in SAE Paper 970967, "Using ATB Under the HVE Environment"


Human Model

Number of Segments     15 mass segments
Number of Joints     14 joints
Adult Models Available     Male / Female
Weight: 2.5, 50.0, 97.5 percentile
Height: 2.5, 5.0, 50.0, 95.0, 97.5 percentile
(Editable for specific height and weight data)
Children Models Available     Age: 3, 6, 9, 12 years old
Additional Contact Ellipsoids     Up to 2 additional contact ellipsoids on each segment
Human Position in Event     9 occupant positions (seated LF, RF, etc)
Number of Humans in Event     Up to 4 humans in each event
Parameters Used in Calculations     3-dimensional Inertial properties
Human ellipsoid / Vehicle contact panel (geometrical and mechanical properties)
Joint mechanical properties
Injury Data Produced     HIC, HSI, CSI, Chest g's

The GEBOD program was used to generate the current HVE human data. The complete HVE human model is described in SAE Paper 950659.

Vehicle Model

Make / model     User selectable from HVE vehicle database
Contact surfaces     Up to 25 contact surfaces, interior and exterior
Restraints     Torso and Lap belt
Vehicle motion     Initial position and velocity along with acceleration-time data
Initial position and velocity along with velocity-time data
Initial position and position-time data
Parameters Used in Calculations     Contact panel descriptions and properties
Restraint availability

Collision Pulse (Position, Velocity or Acceleration Pulse) from tabular input or directly from the output of a collision simulation (e.g., EDSMAC4, SIMON, etc.).

All vehicle data is user editable, with the user having the ability to add to the HVE vehicle database. The complete HVE vehicle model is described in SAE Paper 950308.


Vehicle Kinematics     Position vs time
Velocity vs time
Acceleration vs time
Human Kinematics (for each of the 15 segments)     Positions vs time
Velocities vs time
Acceleration vs time
Human Joints (for each of the 14 joints)     Joint angles vs time
Joint forces vs time
Joint torques vs time
Contacts     Location of contact vs time
Deflection vs time
Force vs time
Restraints     Force / tension vs time
Output Reports     Accident History - Table of positions / velocities
Human Data - Table of human segments, joints, etc.
Injury Data - Calculated HIC, HSI, CSI, chest g's
Messages - List of warnings and errors that occurred
Program Data - Simulation controls, crash pulse, contacts allowed, etc.
Results - Table of positions, velocities, accelerations at given intervals
Vehicle Data - Contact surface descriptions, restraint availability, etc.
Trajectory Simulation     Full 3-dimensional visualization of the human motion Complete integration with other HVE events in the Playback Window Replay time completely adjustable for slow-motion visualizations User selectable view and camera settings Camera can be attached to environment or vehicle

For more information contact:


Collision Engineering Associates, Inc.
P.O. Box 31900
Mesa, AZ 85275
Phone: (480) 655-0399
FAX: (480) 655-0693

website: www.cea-az.com

Trademarks: GATB is a trademark of Collision Engineering Associates, Inc.


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